Interpretation of DMR18

DRIVEN MACHINERY REGULATIONS 18 : DISCUSSION
1.    LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
Occupational Health & Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993 : Driven Machinery Regulations 18
2.    LIFTING MACHINES
A.    Definitions :

i    Lifting machine

Means a power-driven machine which is designed and constructed for the purpose of raising or lowering a load or moving it in suspension, and includes a block and tackle, hoist, crane, lift truck or jib-crane, but does not include an elevator, escalator, goods hoist or builder’s hoist;.

ii    Lift truck

Means a mobile lifting machine, but does not include-

(a)  a vehicle designed solely for the purpose of lifting or towing another vehicle:
(b)  a mobile earth-moving machine; or
(c)  a vehicle designed solely for the removal of waste;
The following are typical examples of equipment included in the definitions :

Overhead Cranes
Monorail structures
Jib Cranes
Mobile Cranes
Vehicle Lifts
Fork Lift trucks
Hydraulic jacks
Chain blocks
B.    Design & Manufacturing

i.    Any lifting machine must be designed and constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard.
ii.    All lifting equipment must be conspicuously and clearly marked with the maximum mass load which it is designed to carry with safety.
iii.    If the mass load varies with the conditions of use a table showing  the maximum mass load with respect to every variable condition shall be posted up in a conspicuous place easily visible to the operator. This implies that a load chart must be posted on mobile cranes & lift trucks.
iv.    Where a lifting machine operates with a winch, it must have at all times at least three full turns of rope on the drum when such winch has been run to its lowest limit.
C.    Safety devices

v.    A winch-operated lifting machine with a lifting capacity of 5000 kg or more must have a load limiting device to prevent the lifting of a load greater than the rated mass load.
vi.    Every power-driven lifting machine will have a brake capable of holding the maximum mass load should the power supply fail, or which is such that it will automatically prevent the uncontrolled downward movement of the load when the raising effort is interrupted.
vii.    Every power-driven lifting machine will have a limiting device which will automatically arrest the driving effort when the hook or load attachment point reaches its highest safe position. This implies that any overhead – & mobile crane will have upper limit switches.
viii.    A jib crane with a lifting capacity of 5 000 kg or more at minimum jib radius, must be provided with a load indicator that will indicate to the operator the mass of the load being lifted  or  a limiting device which will automatically arrest the driving effort whenever the load being lifted is greater than the rated mass load
ix.    Every hook or any other load-attaching device will be designed or proportioned that accidental disconnection of the load under working conditions cannot take place. Every hook should have a safety latch unless it creates a risk.
D.    Inspection & testing

x.    The whole installation and all working parts of every lifting machine must be thoroughly examined and subjected to a performance test at intervals not exceeding 12 months.
xi.    The inspection & testing must be done by a person who has knowledge and experience of the type of lifting machine involved and must determine the serviceability of the structures, ropes, machinery and safety devices
xii.    All ropes, chains, hooks or other attaching devices, sheaves, brakes and safety devices forming an integral part of a lifting machine must be thoroughly examined at intervals not exceeding 6 months.
E.    Documentation

xiii.    A register shall at all times be kept on the premises in which full particulars of any performance test and examinations and any modification or repair to the lifting machine shall be recorded.
xiv.    The register must be available on request for inspection by an inspector of the Department of Labour.
F.    Moving of people

xv.    No persons are permitted to be moved or supported by means of a lifting machine, unless such machine is fitted with a cradle approved for that purpose by an inspector from the Department of Labour. This is applicable to lifting machine not originally manufactured for lifting people such as Mobile Elevating Platforms (“Cherry Pickers”).
xvi    Cradles are divided into 2 categories according to the Department of Labour, ie. (a) all types of lifting machines other than lift trucks and (b) lift trucks.
xvii    The OHS Directive 016 must be referred to for any cradle. (See Attached)
3.    LIFTING TACKLE
A.    Definition :

Lifting tackle

Means chain slings, rope slings, rings, hooks. shackles, swivels, spreaders or similar appliances;
B.    Design & Manufacturing

i.    Lifting tackle as Integral part of a lifting machine

Every chain or rope which forms an integral part of a lifting machine must have a factor of safety as prescribed by the standard to which such machine was manufactured. In the absence of such prescribed factor of safety, chains, steel-wire ropes and fibre ropes shall have a factor of safety of at least four, five and ten, respectively
ii.    Lifting tackle used for rigging

a.    Every item of lifting tackle must be well constructed of sound material, is strong enough and is free from patent defects and is in general constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard.

b.    Every lifting assembly consisting of different items of lifting tackle must be conspicuously and clearly marked with identification particulars and the maximum mass load which it is designed to  lift with safety.

c.    The factor of safety for ropes or chains with respect to the maximum mass load they are designed to lift with safety must be –

(1)     ten for natural-fibre ropes;
(2)     six for man-made fibre ropes or woven webbing;
(3)    six for steel-wire ropes except for double part spliced endless sling legs and double part endless grommet sling legs made from steel-wire rope, in which case the factor of safety  shall be at least eight;
(4)    five for steel chains; and
(5)    four for high-tensile or alloy steel chains:

d.    If the load is equally shared by two or more ropes or chains the factor of safety may be calculated in accordance with the sum of the breaking strengths taking into consideration the angle of loading.

e.    Lifting tackle must be stored or protected so as to prevent damage or deterioration when not in use.
C.    Inspection

i.    Lifting tackle must be examined at intervals not exceeding three  months.

ii.    The inspection & testing must be done by a person who has knowledge and experience of the type of lifting tackle

iii.    Steel-wire ropes must be discarded and not used again for lifting purposes if the rope shows signs of excessive wear, too many broken wires, corrosion or other defects that have made its use in any way dangerous.

D.    Documentation

i.    A register shall at all times be kept on the premises in which full particulars of any examinations shall be recorded.

ii.    The register must be available on request for inspection by an inspector of the Department of Labour.
4.    TRAINING

a.    Every lifting machine must be operated by an operator specifically trained for a particular type of lifting machine.

b.    An operator of a lift truck with a lifting capacity of 750 kg or more and jib-cranes with a lifting capacity of 5000 kg or more at minimum jib radius, must be in possession of a certificate of training, issued by a person or organisation approved for the purpose by the Chief Inspector.